The following is a short extract from Tiffany’s upcoming book, CSS Master, 2nd Edition, which will be available shortly.
Transforms allow us to create effects and interactions that are otherwise impossible. When combined with transitions and animations, we can create elements and interfaces that rotate, dance, and zoom. Three-dimensional transforms, in particular, make it possible to mimic physical objects. In this piece, we’ll look at 2D transform functions (3D functions are covered here).
There are four primary two-dimensional transform functions:
translate. Six other functions let us transform an element in a single dimension:
A rotation transform spins an element around its origin by the angle specified around the
transform-origin point. Using
rotate() tilts an element clockwise (positive angle values) or counter-clockwise (negative angle values). Its effect is much like a windmill or pinwheel, as seen below.
rotate() function accepts values in angle units. Angle units are defined by the CSS Values and Units Module Level 3. These may be
grad (gradians), or
turn units. One complete rotation is equal to
Rotation values that exceed one rotation (say,
1.5turn) are rendered according to their remaindered value, unless animated or transitioned. In other words,
540deg is rendered the same as
180deg (540 degrees minus 360 degrees) and
1.5turn is rendered the same as
.5turn (1.5 – 1). But a transition or animation from
1.5turn will rotate the element one-and-a-half times.
2D Scaling Functions:
With scaling functions, we can increase or decrease the rendered size of an element in the X-dimension (
scaleX), Y-dimension (
scaleY), or both (
scale). Scaling is illustrated below, where the border illustrates the original boundaries of the box, and the + marks its center point.
Each scale function accepts a multiplier or factor as its argument. This multiplier can be just about any positive or negative number. Percentage values aren’t supported. Positive multipliers greater than
1 increase the size of an element. For example,
scale(1.5) increases the size of the element in the X and Y directions 1.5 times. Positive multipliers between
1 will reduce the size of an element.
Values less than
0 will also cause an element to scale up or down in size and create a reflection (flip) transform.
scale(0) will cause the element to disappear, because multiplying a number by zero results in a product of zero.
scale(1) creates an identity transformation, which means it’s drawn to the screen as if no scaling transformation was applied. Using
scale(-1) won’t change the drawn size of an element, but the negative value will cause the element to be reflected. Even though the element doesn’t appear transformed, it still triggers a new stacking context and containing block.
It’s possible to scale the X and Y dimensions separately using the
scale function. Just pass it two arguments:
scale(1.5, 2). The first argument scales the X-dimension; the second scales the Y-dimension. We could, for example, reflect an object along the X-axis alone using
scale(-1, 1). Passing a single argument scales both dimensions by the same factor.
2D Translation Functions:
Translating an element offsets its painted position from its layout position by the specified distance. As with other transforms, translating an element doesn’t change its
offsetTop positions. It does, however, affect where it’s visually positioned on screen.
Each 2D translation function—
translate—accepts lengths or percentages for arguments. Length units include pixels (
rem, and viewport units (
translateX function changes the horizontal rendering position of an element. If an element is positioned zero pixels from the left,
transform: transitionX(50px) shifts its rendered position 50 pixels to the right of its start position. Similarly,
translateY changes the vertical rendering position of an element. A transform of
transform: transitionY(50px) offsets the element vertically by 50 pixels.
translate(), we can shift an element vertically and horizontally using a single function. It accepts up to two arguments: the X translation value, and the Y translation value. The figure below shows the effect of an element with a
transform value of
translate(120%, -50px), where the left green square is in the original position, and the right green square is translated 120% horizontally and -50px vertically from its containing element (the dashed border).
Passing a single argument to
translate is the equivalent of using
translateX; the Y translation value will be set to
translate() is the more concise option. Applying
translate(100px, 200px) is the equivalent of
Positive translation values move an element to the right (for
translateX) or downward (for
translateY). Negative values move an element to the left (
translateX) or upward (
Translations are particularly great for moving items left, right, up, or down. Updating the value of the
bottom properties forces the browser to recalculate layout information for the entire document. But transforms are calculated after the layout has been calculated. They affect where the elements appear on screen, but not their actual dimensions. Yes, it’s weird to think about document layout and rendering as separate concepts, but in terms of browsers, they are.
Transform Properties May Be Coming to a Browser near You
The latest version of the CSS Transforms specification adds
scale properties to CSS. Transform properties work much like their corresponding transform functions, but values are space-separated instead of comma-separated. We could, for example, express
transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 45deg) using the
rotate: 1 1 1 45deg. Similarly,
translate: 15% 10% 300px is visually the same as
transform: translate3d(15%, 10%, 300px) and
scale: 1.5 1.5 3 is the same as
transform: scale3d(1.5, 1.5, 3). With these properties we can manage rotation, translation or scale transformations separately from other transformations.
At the time of writing, browser support for transform properties is still pretty sparse. Chrome and Samsung Internet support them out of the box. In Firefox versions 60 and later, support is hidden behind a flag; visit
about: config and set
Skew transformations shift the angles and distances between points while keeping them in the same plane. Skew transformations are also known as shear transformations, and they distort the shapes of elements, as seen below, where the dashed line represents the original bounding box of the element.
The skew functions—
skewY—accept most angle units as arguments. Degrees, gradians, and radians are valid angle units for the skew functions, while turn units, perhaps obviously, are not.
skewX function shears an element in the X or horizontal direction (see teh image below). It accepts a single parameter, which again must be an angle unit. Positive values shift the element to the left, and negative values shift it towards the right.
skewY shears an element in the Y or vertical direction. The image below shows the effect of
transform: skewY(30deg). Points to the right of the origin are shifted downward with positive values. Negative values shift these points upward.
This brings us to the
skew function. The
skew function requires one argument, but accepts up to two. The first argument skews an element in the X direction, and the second skews it in the Y direction. If only one argument is provided, the second value is assumed to be zero, making it the equivalent of skewing in the X direction alone. In other words,
skew(45deg) renders the same as
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